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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrochemical Imaging: Review of Design and Applications with a Focal Plane Array and Multiple Beam Synchrotron Radiation Source

Volume 66, Number 5 (May 2012) Page 475-492

CAROL J. HIRSCHMUGL and KATHLEEN M. GOUGH


The beamline design, microscope specifications, and initial results from the new mid-infrared beamline (IRENI) are reviewed. Synchrotron-based spectrochemical imaging, as recently implemented at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, Wisconsin, demonstrates the new capability to achieve diffraction limited chemical imaging across the entire mid-infrared region, simultaneously, with high signal-to-noise ratio. IRENI extracts a large swath of radiation (320 hor. × 25 vert. mrads2) to homogeneously illuminate a commercial infrared (IR) microscope equipped with an IR focal plane array (FPA) detector. Wide-field images are collected, in contrast to single-pixel imaging from the confocal geometry with raster scanning, commonly used at most synchrotron beamlines. IRENI rapidly generates high quality, high spatial resolution data. The relevant advantages (spatial oversampling, speed, sensitivity, and signal-to-noise ratio) are discussed in detail and demonstrated with examples from a variety of disciplines, including formalin-fixed and flash-frozen tissue samples, live cells, fixed cells, paint cross-sections, polymer fibers, and novel nanomaterials. The impact of Mie scattering corrections on this high quality data is shown, and first results with a grazing angle objective are presented, along with future enhancements and plans for implementation of similar, small-scale instruments.



Index Headings: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; FT-IR imaging; Infrared microspectroscopy; Focal plane array; FPA; IRENI; Infrared synchrotron radiation; Chemical imaging; Cancer histology; Mouse embryonic stem cells; Cultural heritage; Art conservation; Live algal cell imaging; Neuron; Brain; Retina.