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Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering for Quantitative Analysis of Perchlorate Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) Capped Gold Nanoparticles

Volume 66, Number 9 (Sept. 2012) Page 1027-1033


Perchlorate (ClO4) has emerged as a widespread environmental contaminant found in groundwater and surface water and there is a great need for rapid detection and monitoring of this contaminant. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy was found to be capable of detecting ClO4 at concentrations as low as 25 μg/L using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-modified gold nanoparticles (PDDA-AuNPs) as a substrate. The substrate was successfully fabricated by combining the self-assembly technique with a heat-treatment-based strategy using poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as the reducing and stabilizing agents. With the 520 cm−1 band of silicon as external standard, band intensity ratios of perchlorate to silicon, (i.e., I931/I520) were found to have a quantitative relationship with a large concentration range of perchlorate between 25 μg/L and 50 mg/L. The methodology was also reproducible and not susceptible to the interference of other anions such as sulfate, carbonate, nitrate, and chloride at concentrations of 1 mM, making it potentially suitable for rapid screening and routine analysis of perchlorate in environmental samples.

Index Headings: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering; SERS; Perchlorate quantitative analysis; Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride); PDDA; External standard; Gold nanoparticles.