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Analysis and Classification of Heterogeneous Kidney Stones Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)
Volume 66, Number 11 (Nov. 2012) Page 1353-1361
BELGIN GENC OZTOPRAK, JHANIS GONZALEZ, JONG YOO, TURGAY GULECEN, NAZIM MUTLU, RICHARD E. RUSSO, OZCAN GUNDOGDU, and ARIF DEMIR*
Kidney stones were analyzed using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), utilizing a high resolution multi-channel charge-coupled device (CCD) spectrometer and a nanosecond-pulse Nd : YAG laser. The kidney stones were also characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques for comparative analysis. It was found that the ratio of hydrogen (H) to carbon (C) was an important indicator of organic compounds such as uric acid. Advantages of LIBS, especially with regards to amount of sample required and sample preparation as well as the ability to carry out elemental analysis and classification of kidney stones simultaneously, over other analytical techniques such as XRD and XRF are discussed. The common minor elements detected in the kidney stones include P, S, Si, Ti, and Zn. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of broadband LIBS spectra were employed for classifying different types of kidney stones. The results are beneficial in understanding kidney stone formation processes, which can lead to preventive therapeutic strategies and treatment methods for urological patients.
Index Headings: Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; LIBS; Kidney stone; X-ray diffraction; XRD; X-ray fluorescence; XRF; Principal component analysis; PCA; Partial least squares discrimination analysis; PLS-DA.