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Applications of High-resolution Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Solid Polymers

Volume 37, Number 3 (June 1983) Page 226-249

Havens, John R.; Koenig, Jack L.

Systematic research concerning synthetic polymers requires an understanding of molecular-level influences on macroscopic behavior. Chemical structure, morphology, orientation, and chain dynamics, which are known to have important effects on bulk material properties, have all been characterized by various forms of molecular spectroscopy. Despite such efforts, we do not have a complete understanding of the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic properties. Two general problems remain: (1) the requirement of special sample preparation for many types of spectroscopy; and (2) the limited scope of common spectroscopic techniques. Differences in sample preparation, variations in sensitivity, and ambiguities in interpretation combine to complicate the study. Recently developed NMR techniques for high-resolution in solids have demonstrated the potential to solve such problems in many cases. This review focuses on the high-resolution NMR techniques developed for 13C, the nucleus of most general interest for organic polymers. The experimental procedures are explained briefly and the provision of new information in various areas of polymer science by 13C NMR solids is discussed. Specific examples are used and some indication of future potential is presented.