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Trace Metal Determination by Crystalline Energy Transfer
Volume 25, Number 5 (Oct. 1971) Page 550-553
Lytle, F.E.; Arnold, L.H.
An expression is derived from first principles that indicates a 104 improvement in the detection limit for trace metal analyses by use of crystalline energy transfer instead of normal luminescence methods. These calculations were experimentally verified by examining a crystal comprised of tris-(2,2'-bipyridine) zinc (II) dichloride [Zn(bipyr)3Cl2] as the host and tris-(2,2'-bipyridine) ruthenium (II) dichloride [Ru(bipyr)3Cl2] as the emitting guest. With this system subnanogram levels of ruthenium could be measured. To verify the possibility of crystalline energy transfer quenching analysis a three component crystal was examined that had a fixed concentration of the ruthenium chelate and a varying amount of tris-(2,2'-bipyridine) iron (II) dichloride [Fe(bipyr)3Cl2] as the quenching agent. With this system nanogram levels of iron could be measured.