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Resonant Laser Ablation of Metals Detected by Atomic Emission in a Microwave Plasma and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Volume 59, Number 12 (Dec. 2005) Page 1427-1444
Cleveland, Danielle; Stchur, Peter; Hou, Xiandeng; Yang, Karl X.; Zhou, Jack; Michel, Robert G.
It has been shown that an increase in sensitivity and selectivity of detection of an analyte can be achieved by tuning the ablation laser wavelength to match that of a resonant gas-phase transition of that analyte. This has been termed resonant laser ablation (RLA). For a pulsed tunable nanosecond laser, the data presented here illustrate the resonant enhancement effect in pure copper and aluminum samples, chromium oxide thin films, and for trace molybdenum in stainless steel samples, and indicate two main characteristics of the RLA phenomenon. The first is that there is an increase in the number of atoms ablated from the surface. The second is that the bandwidth of the wavelength dependence of the ablation is on the order of 1 nm. The effect was found to be virtually identical whether the atoms were detected by use of a microwave-induced plasma with atomic emission detection, by an inductively coupled plasma with mass spectrometric detection, or by observation of the number of laser pulses required to penetrate through thin films. The data indicate that a distinct ablation laser wavelength dependence exists, probably initiated via resonant radiation trapping, and accompanied by collisional broadening. Desorption contributions through radiation trapping are substantiated by changes in crater morphology as a function of wavelength and by the relatively broad linewidth of the ablation laser wavelength scans, compared to gas-phase excitation spectra. Also, other experiments with thin films demonstrate the existence of a distinct laser-material interaction and suggest that a combination of desorption induced by electronic transition (DIET) with resonant radiation trapping could assist in the enhancement of desorption yields. These results were obtained by a detailed inspection of the effect of the wavelength of the ablation laser over a narrow range of energy densities that lie between the threshold of laser-induced desorption of species and the usual analytical ablation regime. Normal ablation employs high-power lasers in an attempt to create a vapor plume without selective vaporization, and with a stoichiometry that accurately represents the stoichiometry of species in the solid sample. RLA, as a method of selective vaporization, appears to provide an opportunity to exploit selective vaporization in new ways.