holder

The following is an abstract for the selected article. A PDF download of the full text of this article is available here. Members may download full texts at no charge. Non-members may be charged a small fee for certain articles.


Application of Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy for Characterization of a Copper Converting Process

Volume 42, Number 1 (Jan. 1988) Page 128-133

Wendt, Wilhelm; Aldén, Marcus; Persson, Willy


The emission and absorption spectra of a copper converter flame have been investigated. It was found that the emission spectra consisted of Planck radiation and superimposed discrete structures. The band structure was dominated by PbS in the slag-making stage and by PbO in the copper-making stage. Towards the end of the slag-making stage the ratio of the PbO and PbS band intensities (PbO/PbS) changed, in good agreement with thermodynamical calculations. Absorption measurements were performed during the copper-making stage, where the absorption edge of SO2 at about 380 nm was the dominating feature. The implications of these measurements for process steering and control are discussed.