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Low-Signal-Level Raman Spectroscopy with an Intensified Optical Multichannel Array Detector
Volume 42, Number 5 (July 1988) Page 746-753
Schlotter, N.E.; Schaertel, S.A.; Kelty, S.P.; Howard, R.
A conventional intensified optical multichannel array detector (I-OMA) with minor modifications can detect organic monolayers at "counting rates" as low as 0.05 photoelectrons per second per pixel. Both hardware modifications and data analysis techniques are presented that allow one to obtain maximum performance from the conventional I-OMA.