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Ligand Distributions in Agarose Particles as Determined by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy and Confocal Scanning Laser Microscopy

Volume 57, Number 3 (March 2003) Page 251-255

Larsson, Mina; Lindgren, Jan; Ljunglöf, Anders; Knuuttila, Karl-Gustav

Confocal Raman spectroscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy have been used to analyze ligand distributions within individual chromatographic adsorbent particles. Three different types of particles have been investigated. The first type was synthesized to have a uniform distribution of allyl groups, whereas the two others were designed to have a surface layer of sulphopropyl groups and cores containing allyl groups and dextran, respectively. With confocal Raman spectroscopy it was possible to follow the distribution of both the surface layer and the interior. The distribution of sulphopropyl groups was evaluated with both confocal scanning laser microscopy and confocal Raman spectroscopy, whereas the distributions of allyl groups and dextran were evaluated only with the latter method. The results from the confocal measurements showed the expected result with a uniform distribution of allyl groups in the first type of particle and surface layers of sulphopropyl groups and cores with dextran or allyl groups for the two others.