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Concentration Residual Augmented Classical Least Squares (CRACLS): A Multivariate Calibration Method with Advantages over Partial Least Squares
Volume 56, Number 5 (May 2002) Page 615-624
Melgaard, David K.; Haaland, David M.; Wehlburg, Christine M.
A significant extension to the classical least-squares (CLS) algorithm called concentration residual augmented CLS (CRACLS) has been developed. Previously, unmodeled sources of spectral variation have rendered CLS models ineffective for most types of problems, but with the new CRACLS algorithm, CLS-type models can be applied to a significantly wider range of applications. This new quantitative multivariate spectral analysis algorithm iteratively augments the calibration matrix of reference concentrations with concentration residuals estimated during CLS prediction. Because these residuals represent linear combinations of the unmodeled spectrally active component concentrations, the effects of these components are removed from the calibration of the analytes of interest. This iterative process allows the development of a CLS-type calibration model comparable in prediction ability to implicit multivariate calibration methods such as partial least squares (PLS) even when unmodeled spectrally active components are present in the calibration sample spectra. In addition, CRACLS retains the improved qualitative spectral information of the CLS algorithm relative to PLS. More importantly, CRACLS provides a model compatible with the recently presented prediction-augmented CLS (PACLS) method. The CRACLS/PACLS combination generates an adaptable model that can achieve excellent prediction ability for samples of unknown composition that contain unmodeled sources of spectral variation. The CRACLS algorithm is demonstrated with both simulated and real data derived from a system of dilute aqueous solutions containing glucose, ethanol, and urea. The simulated data demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm and help elucidate the principles behind the method. Using experimental data, we compare the prediction abilities of CRACLS and PLS during cross-validated calibration. In combination with PACLS, the CRACLS predictions are comparable to PLS for the prediction of the glucose, ethanol, and urea components for validation samples collected when significant instrument drift was present. However, the PLS predictions required recalibration using nonstandard cross-validated rotations while CRACLS/PACLS was rapidly updated during prediction without the need for time-consuming cross-validated recalibration. The CRACLS/PACLS algorithm provides a more general approach to removing the detrimental effects of unmodeled components.