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Dual Polarization Modulation: A Real-Time, Spectral-Multiplex Separation of Circular Dichroism from Linear Birefringence Spectral Intensities

Volume 54, Number 11 (Nov. 2000) Page 1634-1645

Nafie, Laurence A.


A real-time, spectral-multiplex method for the complete separation of circular dichroism (CD) spectra from linear birefringence (LB) spectra is presented. The method, called dual polarization modulation (DPM), involves the introduction of a second source of polarization modulation after the CD sample. The first source of polarization modulation, as in conventional CD spectrometers, is located before the sample. Intensity signals at the detector in phase with each of the two polarization modulation frequencies are demodulated simultaneously in parallel and combined electronically in opposition to eliminate the LB spectrum by real-time cancellation. The accuracy of the cancellation can be adjusted electronically without the need to change the optical alignment of the instrument. The DPM method permits baseline-corrected CD spectra to be measured without the need for a subsequent CD background measurement.