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Investigation of Halogen Determination in a Helium Capacitively Coupled Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer
Volume 48, Number 5 (May 1994) Page 643-646
Spencer, B.M.; Raghani, A.R.; Winefordner, J.D.
The measurement of halogens by optical emission spectroscopy is difficult because the resonance lines occur in the vacuum-UV (VUV) region of the spectrum where oxygen and nitrogen absorb light and optical components are less efficient. However, plasmas still show promise as sources for the determination of halogens. Helium plasmas offer an advantage over argon plasmas since helium has a higher ionization potential (24.6 eV for He and 15.8 eV for Ar). Chlorine and fluorine have been measured by a helium hollow cathode discharge (He-HCD), helium capacitively coupled microwave plasma (He-CMP), helium microwave-induced plasma (He-MIP), argon and helium inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), and ICP-mass spectrometry. The majority of sample introduction techniques have involved using the effluent from a gas chromatograph, electrothermal vaporization, or volatile compound formation. Several researchers have used pneumatic nebulization. In this research, organic samples containing organic chlorine or fluorine compounds and aqueous samples of chloride or fluoride ions were introduced into the He-CMP with the use of pneumatic nebulization.